Directive 1999/93/EC 13 December 1999 on a Community framework for electronic signatures: OJ L 13, 19.1.2000, p. 12.
ECD Article 9 and Recitals 34-35.
Report on the Operation of Directive 1999/93/EC.
Angel, J. (1999) Why use digital signatures for electronic commerce? JILT 2.
Background: Part II of Waelde and Edwards (2009) Law and the Internet. This is the required textbook for the course.